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Cancer Types

According to the American Cancer Society, more than 14 million people living in the United States have been diagnosed with cancer. The Harold Leever Regional Cancer Center uses the latest technology and most advanced techniques to treat the following major types of cancer.

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is the fifth most common type of cancer in the United States. There were approximately 74,000 new cases diagnosed in the U.S. in 2015, with men almost four times more likely than women to be diagnosed. There have been significant advances in the treatment of bladder cancer in recent years, and the five-year survival rate is more than 75%. Most bladder cancers start in the inner lining of the bladder. If undetected or left untreated, it can grow into or through the other layers of the bladder or spread outside the bladder. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Rarer types of bladder cancer include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small-cell carcinoma and sarcoma. Your physician at the Leever Cancer Center can give you more information about bladder cancer and your recommended treatment.

Bladder Cancer Resources

Brain Cancer

Brain cancer can either start in the brain (primary brain tumor) or spread to the brain from other parts of the body (metastatic brain tumor). Primary brain tumors are more common in older adults and children; metastatic brain tumors are more common in adults. Some brain tumors are not cancerous at all (benign), but may still cause symptoms and require treatment. There are more than 120 types of brain tumors. The most common types of brain tumor in adults are anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. In children, astrocytomas are the most common type. Prognosis and treatment for brain tumors depend on age, type of tumor, size of tumor and where it is located in the brain. 

Brain Cancer Resources

Breast Cancer

Every year almost 300,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer. In the United States, breast cancer is the second most common cancer for women (after skin cancer) and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women (after lung cancer). Risk factors for breast cancer include family history, medical and health issues, gene mutations, and other factors. Thanks to increased awareness, early detection and improvements in treatment, the death rate from breast cancer has been declining steadily since 1989. At the Breast Center of Greater Waterbury at the Leever Cancer Center, our mission is to provide comprehensive, state-of-the art care for patients with breast disorders both benign and malignant.

Breast Cancer Resources

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer, or colon cancer, is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Most colon cancers first manifest as polyps, which are abnormal growths inside the colon or rectum that can become cancerous if not removed. Adults age 50 and older account for 90% of all new diagnoses.

Colorectal Cancer Resources

Esophageal Cancer

Cancer that starts in the esophagus—the hollow tube that connects the throat to the stomach—is three to four times more common in men than in women. Just 1% of cancers diagnosed in the United States are esophageal, and many of those cases can be linked to risk factors such as tobacco or alcohol use or obesity. There are two main types of esophageal cancer—squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

Esophageal Cancer Resources

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the United States—in 2015, 13% of all new cancer diagnoses were for lung cancer. The most common type of lung cancer is non-small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 85% of lung cancers. The remaining 15% are small cell lung cancers and lung carcinoid tumors. Because lung cancer is difficult to detect in its early stages and symptoms such as coughing and fatigue are often attributed to other causes, most lung cancer diagnoses occur at Stage III or Stage IV. Consult your doctor at the Leever Cancer Center for details about your type of cancer and treatment.

Lung Cancer Resources


Lymphoma is a type of blood cancer that starts in the parts of body that comprise the immune system, including the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma (formally called Hodgkin’s Disease) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Hodgkin lymphoma, which affects the blood and bone marrow, is one of the most curable types of cancer, with five-year survival rates of 90-95% for those diagnosed in Stage I or II. NHL is actually a group of cancer types that affect the lymphatic system. There are no clear risk factors or causes for either type of lymphoma.

Lymphoma Cancer Resources


Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer and the sixth most common type of cancer in the United States. Most melanomas (70%) are the superficial spreading type, which remain close to the surface of the skin for a fairly long time before spreading down to other parts of the body. If discovered and treated early, the cure rate for melanoma is close to 100%. The first step in treatment is usually surgery to remove the melanoma, but more treatment may be needed in more advanced cases.

Melanoma Cancer Resources

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer is relatively rare, accounting for just 3% of cancers among women. Some tumors that grow in the ovaries are benign (non-cancerous) and never spread to other parts of the body. Ovarian tumors that are cancerous can spread to other organs in the pelvic area or through the blood or lymph nodes to other parts of the body. Cancerous ovarian tumors are treated in a number of ways, including surgery, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and radiation therapy. Talk to your doctor at the Leever Cancer Center about the options that are right for you.

Ovarian Cancer Resources

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic cancer starts in the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen that lies behind the stomach. Most pancreatic cancers are exocrine tumors, which do not cause signs or symptoms and therefore often go undetected in the early stages. The treatment for pancreatic cancer depends on whether the tumor can be removed with surgery and the stage of the cancer.

Pancreatic Cancer Resources

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after skin cancer, affecting one in seven men in the United States. Prostate cancer diagnoses are more common in older men—more than 65% of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over 65. Prostate cancer often has no early symptoms and grows very slowly. In many cases it causes no health problems and many men do not die from the disease.

Prostate Cancer Resources

In very infrequent cases, the Leever Cancer Cancer Center may refer patients elsewhere if they have an extremely rare form of cancer. For more information, please discuss your case with your doctor.

Can I Get a Second Opinion?

You are in charge of your treatment, and you should be comfortable that the diagnosis you receive is the right one. The Harold Leever Regional Cancer Center's specialists are well-trained and highly respected, but we encourage you to seek a second opinion before undertaking treatment. We are happy to both give second opinions if you were diagnosed by a physician unaffiliated with the Leever Cancer Center, or provide you with references to other physicians that can give you a second opinion on the diagnosis you received here.